Migration to different parts of the world has been a phenomenon in practice from the beginning of our times. From hunter-gather communities migrating in search of green pastures for the sole reason of survival, individuals are migrating now at a faster pace.
The purpose? It is not just about survival.
In India, it is not an uncommon phenomenon to travel towards the Western nations for higher education, better job opportunities, and a better lifestyle. In recent times, it has become an everyday phenomenon in India to have a friend, neighbor, or relative announcing their departure to other countries.
Why is this happening? How is this brain drain affecting a developing nation like that of India?
The two kinds of migration that is commonly seen in India is one, the semi-skilled or unskilled laborers who migrate to Gulf countries for better job opportunities. Then there is the professionals who migrate to advanced capitalist nations. The proportion of educated people leaving the country is much more and ever increasing. The major reason for this has been stated by many as lack of educational and employment opportunities. This creates brain drain in India.
During the planning era of post-independent India, schemes were put forward to build and expand the public sector, which did immensely improve the quality of employment. Yet all of this changed for the worse when the NITI Aayog was established. Under this liberalization, privatization, and globalization widened the economic disparity and left many jobless.
The innumerable choices available to students in terms of education are much more professional and rewarding in Western countries. The lack of opportunities in terms of the subjects, infrastructure, placements, etc is in dire need of attention.
With developed nations providing better living conditions it is not of surprise that migration is at a high rate. Various factors come into play here, such as better payment, better working conditions, better living conditions which all together add up to better wellbeing.
The above graph depicts the migration rates of India. The year 2018 saw a major rise in migration as depicted in the above graph. Although there has been a decline due to the ongoing pandemic migration has not reduced drastically.
According to the Ministry of External Affairs, over 13.6 million Indian nationals were living abroad as of February 2020.
The above graph depicts the human flight and the resultant brain drainage from India. Not many return back to India after their formal education, due to reasons mentioned earlier.
India is facing an acute shortage of brainpower. Most educated and working brains are leaving, which is detrimental to the development of our country. Brain drain is a major loss for every country. In order for any nation to develop, it requires human power. It requires working brains.
The government should focus more on developing the educational system of our country. The huge issue related to the lack of educational opportunities as compared to other nations has to be tackled by India if it needs to reduce its brain drain.
Apart from the implementation process of schemes, the focus must be on the successful completion of the same. India does put forward several educational schemes yet only the implementation part takes place. The citizens need to be made aware of educational and employment opportunities. Lack of knowledge and information regarding the various developments in the job sector is one major reason why several assume there isn’t much opportunities in India.
The future of India
The future of India lies in the hands of the upcoming youth. If all creative minds and intelligent brains leave India behind, we will remain under the developing stage for several more years to come.
Under the right guidance of experts and government funding, there is still immense potential in India. Brain drains can be transformed into brain with the right efforts. After all, if India could manage to break free from the shackles of Britain back in 1947, then we surely can compete against a few more countries namely Australia, Canada, and the US.